The upper chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lower chambers.


The blood vessel that carries blood and oxygen from the lower chamber (ventricle) of your heart to the rest of the body.

Aortic stenosis

A diseased, narrow heart valve that does not open fully. Stenosis can be caused by calcification build-up, degeneration, rheumatic fever or a congenital defect.

Aortic Valve

The valve that lies between the lower chamber of the heart and the aorta.

Cardiac Angiogram

This special x-ray uses dye injected through a catheter positioned in a blood vessel in the groin to see the heart chambers, valves and blood vessels.

The doctor follows the dye on x-ray to see how it flows through your heart.


A thin, hollow and flexible tube that can be passed through vessels to reach different parts of the body. It provides a channel to deliver medical devices.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A recording of the electrical activity of your heart that shows the heart rate and rhythm to help diagnose heart valve disease.


A test that uses ultrasound or soundwaves to examine the heart. The test is performed by placing a probe on the chest that produces an image of the heart’s chambers, valves and major blood vessels along with blood flow through the heart.

Interventional Cardiologist

A doctor specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease using catheter based technology.


A procedure that requires a smaller incision and is often associated with less blood loss, tissue damage and potentially shorter hospital stays.

Transcatheter Valve

A valve that is placed in a catheter, inserted in a blood vessel, advanced to the heart and replaces the diseased valve.


A procedure to open a narrow, diseased heart valve. The procedure consists of a deflated balloon placed in catheter that is inserted in a blood vessel in the upper leg. The catheter is advanced to the heart. Once in place across the valve the balloon is inflated to open the diseased valve then deflated. The catheter and balloon are then removed.


The lower chambers of the heart that pump blood to the rest of the body.